Good, long sloping shoulders
Depth through the girth

claims by players for a foul generally expressed by the raising of mallets above the head or by a helicoptering motion. Over demonstrative appealing is considered very bad form.

Bell or hooter:
situated off the side of the field and is rung by the timekeeper to inform umpires when seven minutes of play in a chukka have elapsed.

Bowl in:
when the umpire starts or resumes a polo match by rolling the ball down the center of a lineup of players, same as throw.

Bump or Ride Off:
a player is permitted to ride off another to spoil his shot or to remove him from the play. The angle of contact must be no more than 45 degrees. The faster the pony travels the smaller the angle must be. A good bump can shake discs and dentures loose.

Check and turn:
to slow the pony and turn safely

there are six chukkers (periods) in high handicap matches, each lasting seven minutes plus up to 30 seconds of overtime. Chukker comes from the Indian word for a circle or round.

turf kicked up by ponies' hooves.

the back lines of a polo pitch. Teams change ends, i.e. switch the halves they defend, each time a goal is scored in order to equalize wind and turf conditions.

hard helmets and knee-pads for players are compulsory. Whips and spurs are optional.

an unofficial goal observer appointed to signal by waving a flag over the head if a goal is scored, or under the waist if no goal

a full size polo field is 300 yards by 160 yards, or the area of three soccer pitches. The goal posts, which collapse on severe impact, are set eight yards (24 feet) apart and a minimum of 10 feet high. Penalty lines are marked at 30 yards from the goal, 40 yards, 60 yards, and at midfield.

any time the ball crosses, at any height, the line between the goal posts, it is considered a goal regardless of who knocks it through, including the pony.

all players are rated on a scale of -2 to 10 (the higher the better). Although the word 'goal' is often used after the rating, it bears no relation to the number of goals a player scores in a match, but to his overall playing ability.

provided the player is on the same side of the opponent's pony as the ball, he may spoil the opponent's shot by putting his stick in the way of the striking player's. A cross hook occurs when the player reaches over his opponent's mount in an attempt to hook; this is considered a foul.

three- minutes long rest periods between chukkas. Half time is five minutes.

goal judges are positioned behind each goal to signal whether a goal has been scored. Hard hats and high visibility vests are worn for protection.

if a team hit the ball across the opponent's backline during an attack, the defending team resumes the game with a free hit from the backline where the ball went over. It is equivalent to a goal kick in soccer. No time-out is allowed for knock-ins.

to ride past the ball so that the teammate behind can hit it.

Line of the Ball:
crossing the line' is the most frequent foul in polo. The line of the ball, namely the imaginary line along which the ball travels, represents a right of way for the player following nearest that line. There are strict rules governing opponents entry in to the right of way.

Made pony:
a polo pony that is well trained for polo and has been played for some time.

the left hand side of the pony.

two mounted umpires do most of the officiating, with a referee at midfield having the final say in any dispute between the umpires

when a ball goes over the sideboards, it is considered out-of- bounds. The umpire throws the ball in between the two teams lined up at the point at which it left the field of play. It is equivalent to a throw-in in soccer. No time-out is allowed for an out-of-bounds ball.

two riders may make contact and push each other off the line to prevent the other from striking the ball. It is primarily intended for the ponies to do the pushing, but a player is allowed to use his body, but not his elbows.

also known as a Penalty 6, a safety is awarded when a defending player hits the ball over his own backline, the shot is taken 60 yards out from the backline, opposite the point at which the ball went over. It is equivalent to a corner in soccer and no defender can be nearer than 30 yards from the ball when it is played.

these are nine to eleven inch high vertical boards along the sidelines only. Such sideboards are optional.

Stick and ball:
personal practice time

Sudden Death:
overtime play when the score is tied at the end of the last regular chukker, the first team to score wins.

hitting at the ball with the mallet using one of four basic shots: forehander, backhander, neckshot, tailshot.

all the equipment used on a pony.

Third man:
the referee sitting at the sidelines who will arbitrate if the two mounted umpires on the field are unable to agree a foul.

called by an umpire when a foul is committed, an accident occurs or at his discretion. A player may call time-out if he has broken a key piece of tack or is injured. Time-out is not permitted for changing ponies or for replacing a broken mallet, although a player may do so at any time.

the replacement at half time of divots of turf. This is the duty of all spectators.