Ball white, 31/4 inches in diameter, often made of willow, weighs about 41/2 ounces. Is no longer made of bamboo except in certain parts of India.
Boots Usually with a heel, to help keep the player's foot in the stirrup. Often held together with duct tape.
Helmet may have a face guard, some now resemble football helmets.
Gloves protect the hands from friction and improve grip.
Knee guards protection from bumps and checks.
Mallet/Stick the shaft is usually made from bamboo cane and the head from a hard wood. The wide face of the mallet head is used to strike the ball and not the ends as in croquet. Polo mallets range in length according, principally, to the height of the pony played, and extend from 48 to 54 inches.
Shirt a Polo shirt
Spurs usually quarter inch or half inch blunt spurs
Whip Thin , varying lengths
White Breeches protects the thighs
 
Bridle Usually a gag snaffle, pelham or double bridle, leverage based for quick stops and turns.
Mane Shaved or roached to stay out of the way of mallet and reins.
Martingale keeps the pony from raising its head too high and cracking the player in the face.
Breastplate keeps the saddle from sliding back.
Polo saddle light brown leather, well padded for comfort of pony and players.
Bandages Thick padded wraps and/or boots to protects the pony´s legs from accidental knocks with the mallet, which are inevitable.
Tail wrapped up in a polo bang to keep it out of the way of the mallet
Shoes Have two ridges to increase traction, the outside one higher
 

A polo team consists of four players. Each player is handicapped from -2 to 10 (the best).

A player's horsemanship, range of strokes, speed of play, team and game sense are the factors considered in determining his handicap.

The team handicap is the sum of its players' handicaps.

In handicap matches of six chukkas, the team with the lower handicap is awarded the difference in goals at the start of the game. For example, a 26-goal team would give two goals start to a 24-goal team.

For matches other than six chukkas, the side with the lower handicap starts with a number of goals start according to the following formula: the difference in the teams' handicaps is multiplied by the number of chukkas to be played and then divided by six. Fractions count as half a goal. For example, a 26 goal team would give a 24 goal team 1 1/2 goals start in a four chukka match.

The game is played on a field that measures 300 by 160 yards (as big as nine football fields) with goalposts at either end.
There used to be a height restriction which is why they are still called ponies; however the average height is between 15 and 16 hands.
Polo ponies are bred throughout the world although many still prefer the Argentine - Criollo's breeds qualities are excellent for speed, stamina, and agility.
The good polo pony must be able to stop and turn 'on a sixpence'' and most players consider their success is greatly due to the ability of their ponies.
Play starts with the umpire throwing in the ball between the two teams lined up in front of him. In the same way, play is restarted after a goal is scored or if the ball goes out over the side boards.
If the ball goes over the back line there is a hit-in by the defenders.
There is no offside in polo, nor is there a corner- instead a 60 yd hit from the back line is taken by the attacking side opposite where the ball went out of play.
The object is to move a ball downfield and through the goal in six periods of play known as "chukkers."
Each chukker is seven minutes long. There are no time-outs except for injuries, penalties, or unsafe situations. And no replacement of players is allowed except for injuries.
Each of the four players is given an area of responsibility designated by a jersey number that indicates that area. The forward is designated Number 1; the most defensive player is called Number 4, or the Back. (There is no goalie.) The mid-action players are designated Number 2 and Number 3, with the latter controlling the attack and coordinating the defense. He's usually the highest-rated player on the team and the de facto captain. This alignment is designed to be fluid, however, and to change quickly under game situations.
Most of the rules of polo are for the safety of the players and their ponies. The umpires' primary concerns are right of way and the line of the ball.
The line of the ball is an imaginary line that is formed each time the ball is struck. This line traces the ball's path and extends past the ball along that trajectory. The player who last struck the ball is considered to have right of way, and no other player may cross the line of the ball in front of that player, or push that player off the line.
Riding alongside to block or hook is allowed, as long as the player with right of way is not impeded. Bumping or riding off is allowed as long as the angle of attack is less than forty five degrees, and any contact must be made between the pony's hip and shoulder.
A player may hook or block another player's mallet with his mallet, but no deliberate contact between players is allowed.
A player may not purposely touch another player, his tack or pony with his mallet. The mallet may only be held in the right hand.
Left handed players are often thought to hit with less accuracy, but guide their ponies better than their right handed peers.

Ponies play for a maximum of two chukkers per match.

Polo is probably the only game in which the teams change ends when a goal is scored, thus equaling out any ground or weather advantage.
A free hit towards goal is set from distance by the umpire following a foul. These penalties are as follows:
Penalty Nº 1 Automatic goal.
Penalty Nº 2 30 yd hit to an open goal.
Penalty Nº 3 40 yd hit to an open goal.
Penalty Nº 4 60 yd hit to a defended goal.
Penalty Nº 5 A hit from the spot where the foul was committed.
Penalty Nº 5B A hit from the centre of the ground.
Forehand to hit the ball forward or laterally to a teammate.
Backhand changing the flow of play by sending the ball in the opposite direction.
Neckshot hitting the ball under horse's neck.
Tailshot hitting the ball behind and under horse's rump.
 
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